Elementry Human Anatomy and Physiology
  by V. Reghunandanan, K. Gopinathan & R. Reghunandanan
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   ISBN 978-93-85529-15-3; 3rd Ed. 2017; Rpt. 2021; pp.viii+296

   Delhi price: 220      Outside Delhi price: 230      Outside Delhi price: 660

 About The Book  

    In this revised third edition, a sincere attempt is made to incorporate all the valuable suggestions and comments received from them. One of the suggestions has been to expand the contents of the book. We must admit that this has been possible only partially because of the limitations of Education Regulations 1991 of the Pharmacy Council of India which had to be kept in mind. However, within the possible frame work the text has been expanded at the appropriate places. Additional chapters on Homeostasis and Sports Physiology have been included and a complete revision has been carried out. The chapter ‘Osteology’ has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Many diagrams have been replaced with better ones and at places new diagrams have been added. Revision exercises have been placed at the end of each Chapter. Many additions to the Question Bank have been made for easy recapitulation, understanding and testing of the knowledge.
   This book is for use by the students of the Diploma course in Pharmacy, Medical Laboratory Technology, Nursing courses and general readers as well. It also serves as a basic book of Anatomy and Physiology for those who opt for the career as medical representative.


chapter 1  Scope of Anatomy and Pysiology

Definitions of anatomical terms , Movements

chapter 2  The Cell

Cell membrane , Cytoplasmic organelloes, Cytoplasmic inclu­sions, Variations in size and shape,

Revision exer­cises

CHAPTER 3  Homeostatic Mechanisms

Internal and external environment and principle involved in Homeostatic mechanisms.  Definition of Homoeostasis. Mechanisms involved. Disruption of Homeostasis and disease state. Reflex pathways and feedback mechanisms.

Revision exer­cises

chapter 4  Elementary Tissues of the Body

Epithelial Tissues - Simple and stratified (compound) connective tissue, Cells, Fibers Ground sub­stance, Embroyonal, adult and loose connective tissue, Dense connective tissue, Tendons, cartilage, Bone, ossification of bones

Muscular Tissue Classification : Striated voluntary (skele­tal) muscle, Striated involuntary (cardiac) muscle, Smooth muscle, Comparison of skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles

Nervous Tissue, Neuron, Dendrites and Axon, Structure of peripheral nerve, Nerve endings, Neuroglia, Spinal cord, Cerebellum, Cerebrum,

Revi­sion exercises

chapter 5  Skeletal System

Functions, Table and diagrams showing details of bones and classifi­cation of bones

Axial skeleton, Bones of cranium, Cranial fossae, Sutures of skull, Bones of face, Bones of neck, Bones of vertebral column, Ligaments of vertebral column, Movements of vertebral column, Bones of thorax, Appendicular skeleton, Bones of shoulder girdle, Bones of upper limb, Bones of pelvic girdle Differences between male and female pelvis Bones of lower limb, Arches of foot, Fractures of bones

Joints of the body-Classification, Important joints of the body, Joint disorders

Revision exercises

chapter 6  Skeletal muscles of the body

Table showing details of muscles for movements of; Facial expres­sion, Eye ball, Tongue, Mastication, Head, Neck, Shoulder girdle, Humerus (arm) at shoulder joint, Forearm at elbow joint, at radis-unlar joints, Hand at wrist, Fingers and thumb, Vertebral column, for respiration, Hip joint, Knee joint, Foot and toes

Muscle Proteins and muscular con­traction, Neuromuscular junction, Myasthenia Gravis

Revision exercises

chapter 7  Central Nervous System

Parts of central nervous system, Meninges and Cerebrospinal fluid, Composition of nervous tissue

Brain : Forebrain-Cerebrum, Basal ganglia, Thalamus and hypothalamus, Midbrain, Hind brain, Cerebel­lum, Pons and Medulla oblongata, Reticular formation, Reflex action

Autonomic nervous system, Adrenergic receitpors ,

Revision exercises

chapter 8  Blood

Composition and functions of blood, Red blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets  Plasma, Blood coagulation, Anticlotting factors

Blood groupings, Disorders related to Red blood cells and white blood cells

Revision exercises

chapter 9  Lymphatic System

Lymph nodes of the Head and Neck, Lymph nodes of upper limb, thorax, lower limb and abdomen and pelvis.  Functions of lymphatic system

Revision exercises

chapter 10  Cardiovascular System

Structure and properties of muscles of heart and blood vessels, Names and positions of the main arteries and veins of the body: Aorta, Common iliac artery, Subclavian artery, Common carotid and external carotid arteries, Veins of lower limb veins of upper limb, Internal jugular vein, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava Cardiac cycle, Heart sounds, Cardiac output and venous return, Electrocardiogram.

Control of cardiovascular system, various reflexes, centres and nerves control of heart rat, Vascular system and haemodynamics, Blood Pressure and its  measurement, Factors affecting B.P., Drugs affecting B.P, Pulse, Blood volume, Shock, Hemnorrhagic shock, Fainting, Hypertension, Coronary heart disease, Stroke

Revision exercises.

chapter 11  Digestive System

Anatomy and functions of various parts of digestive system, Enzymes of the digestive tract, their origin and functions, Teeth and Salivary glands, Pharynx and swallowing, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine, Liver, Pancreas, Gall bladder

Digestion and absorption of various food stuffs, Hormones of G.I.T. and their actions, Peritoneum

Revision exercises

chapter 12  Endoerine Glands

Main features—structure, hormones secreted by various endocrine glands, their action and control : Anterior and Posterior Pituitary, Thyroid gland, Hyper-and Hypothyroidism, Adrenal glands, Pancreas, Insulin and glucagon.  Pineal gland, Thymus and Sex glands

Revision exercises

chapter 13  Respiratory System

Parts and functions of respiratory system -Internal and external respiration, Thoracic cavity, Pleura, lungs, lung volumes and capacities, Regulation of respiration-Nervous and chemical control, Common respiratory disorders

Revision exercises

chapter 14  Special Sense

Structure and functions of different senses:

Taste — Tongue

Smell — Nose

Hearing and Equilibrium — Ear: external ear, middle ear, Inner ear; Physiology of hearing, Organ of corti, Deafness, Physiology of equilibriumn

Sight — Eye: Orbital cavity, eye lids, conjuctiva, eyeball, retina, lens, rods and cones; Pathways of vision, Lesions & other abnormalities

Touch — Skin; appendagis of skin : hair, nails, seba­ceous gland and sweat glands

Pain  — Nerve endings, referred pain and headache

Revision exercises

chapter 15  Urinary System

Structure of various parts and functions of the urinary system:

Kidneys, Mechanism of urine formation and excretion, Concentration of urine, Renal regulation of acid base balance

Ureters, Urinary bladder, Micturition, Urethra, Disorders of kidneys, Abnormal consituents of urine and tests to detect them, Revision exercises

chapter 16  Reproductive System

Structure and functions of reproductive organs:

Female Reproductive System — Internal female genital organs - Vagina, uterus, ovaries, Puberty, menopause; Ovarian cycle, Ovulation, estrogen, progesterone; uterine cycle, Vaginal cycle

External female genital organs, Mammary glands

Male Reproductive System — External male genital organs, Internal male genital organs

Spermatozoa, fertilisation

Revision exercises

CHAPTER 17  Sports Physiology

Muscles in exercise. Effects of athletic training on muscles and muscle performance. Respiration and cardiovascular system in exercise. Increase in skeletal muscle blood flow. Increase in cardiac output, body heat in exercise, Body fluids and salt in exercise, Drugs and athletes.

Revision exer­cises